In the post-Cold War era, global infatuation with neo-liberal economics has intensified the cultural, socio-economic, political and economic peripheralization of the South. The neo-liberal paradigm does not only shape the field of International Relations, but also both the national and international policies and policy.
There were difficulties and “Memory battles” in transmitting the memory of the Algerian war of independence (1954-62) in contemporary France. Jo McCormack’s Collective Memory: France and the Algerian War (1954-1962) discusses a number of topics related to the analysis of the French collective memory of the Algerian War (1954-62), one of the most iconic, hardest and bloodiest wars of decolonization. France wanted to sweep this traumatic period under the carpet and to engage in a policy of forgetting by referring to the Algerian War as peacekeeping operations to maintain order. Also, the “work of memory” on the Algerian War in France was very insufficient. Nevertheless, the memory of this war without a name was never forgotten but repressed since France wanted to turn the page on the divisive and painful Algerian war episode in French history.
Bhikhu Parekh’s Colonialism, Tradition and Reform An Analysis of Gandhi’s Political Discourse discusses a number of topics related to Gandhi’s political and social activity, and the emergence of independent India. His primary argument is that Ghandi utilized both the resources of Hindu tradition such as sati (widow burning in order to ashes on her dead husband’s pyre) and a unique moral and political authority to formulate his political discourse. His approach also borrowed from Western political philosophy, but adapted to the local social-political context. Finally, it is clear that Gandhi’s approach drew from a long line of eminent Indian thinkers who influenced Gandhi’s views on the essence and causes of India’s apparent decline. These disparate influences combined to give Ghandi a new view, based on a form of self-criticism and moral philosophy. Together, he used his understanding of Hinduism with these other approaches to create a compelling and new approach to political activism.